In our solar system discovery of the ninth planet

In our solar system discovery of the ninth planet

The astronomers Mike Brown and Konstantin Batygin of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, said the discovery beyond the orbit of Pluto the ninth planet of the candidate of the solar system. The find could be one of the most sensational in the current decade, comparable to the discovery of a new continent on Earth. Searches Planet X authors published in The Astronomical Journal. Briefly talk about them and Science News Nature News.

What opened
Planet X is an object about the size of Neptune and ten times the mass of Earth. Heavenly body revolves around the sun in highly elongated and inclined to Earth’s orbit with a period of 15,000 years. The closest distance between the Sun and Planet X is 200 astronomical units (that is seven times greater than the distance between Neptune and the luminary), and the maximum is estimated at 600-1200 astronomical units. This brings the orbit of the object beyond the Kuiper Belt where Pluto is located in the direction of the Oort cloud.
Why ninth planet
Determination of the planet, proposed by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), applies only to the celestial bodies in the solar system. According to him, the planet is considered rounded massive body, clear the neighborhood of its orbit by a large number of smaller bodies. IAU officially recognizes the existence of the five dwarf planets. One of them (Ceres) is located in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, while others (Pluto, Eris, Makemake and Haumea) – within the orbit of Neptune. The largest of them is Pluto.
Total in the solar system, according to MAC, there are eight planets. The biggest and most massive of them – Jupiter. Pluto is the decision of the MAC in 2006, it ceased to be a planet because it does not satisfy one of its defining criteria (dominance in the space of its orbit). To date, astronomers have discovered more than 40 candidates dwarf planets. Scientists estimate suggests that the solar system can be more than two thousand dwarf planets, of which 200 are within the Kuiper Belt (at a distance of 30 to 55 AU from the Sun). The rest – is it.
Determination of the dwarf planet as a matter of controversy among scientists. In particular, the crucial role it can play with the size of a celestial body. Planet X, being the fifth in mass and size of the known science of celestial body of the solar system certainly can not be considered undersized. The unusual orbit of Planet X and origin may lead to a revision of the definition of the MAC dwarf planet.
How to Open
The existence of Planet X was suspected in 2014. Then Chadwick Trujillo of the Gemini Observatory in Hawaii and Scott Sheppard of the Carnegie Institution of Washington have published an article in Nature, which reported the detection at a distance of 80 astronomical units (Pluto is at a distance of 48 astronomical units from the Sun) from the Sun. trans-Neptunian objects 2012 VP113. In its work, the astronomers also suggested that at a distance of 250 astronomical units from the sun is a planet larger than Earth.
Brown astronomer observer and expert on computing astronomy Batygin decided to refute these Sheppard and Trujillo. But it turned out differently. Scientists have discovered a new planet with the help of data analysis exerted its gravitational effects on other celestial bodies beyond Neptune. Among them, in particular, appears open in 2003. Brown, Trujillo and David Rabinowitz candidate dwarf planet Sedna. Computer simulations and theoretical calculations performed by Brown and Batygina explain the observations the existence of Planet X. The probability of an error in its findings, astronomers estimated at 0.007 percent.
How was Planet X
The exact answer to the question of the origin of the Planet X astronomers can not yet give. They tend to the following hypothesis. At the dawn of the solar system, there were five major protoplanets, four of which formed the modern Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. However, about three million years after the birth of the gravity of the first two celestial bodies thrown protoplanets X beyond the orbit of Neptune.
The structure and composition of Planet X
The origin of the Planet X gives grounds to assume that it was originally like the gas giants Uranus and Neptune. Last 17 times heavier than the Earth, and its diameter is four times greater than that of blue planet. Uranus and Neptune are classified as ice giants. Their atmosphere is composed of gases (hydrogen, helium, and hydrocarbons) and particles of ice (water, ammonia and methane). Under the atmosphere of the giant is the mantle of water, ammonia and methane ice, revealing a solid core of metal silicates and ice. Planet X may have a similar core and mantle without a dense atmosphere.
Criticism
Referent of the work of scientists in The Astronomical Journal made heaven mechanic Alessandro Morbidelli of Nice. He is optimistic about the chances for the opening of Planet X astronomers Brown and Batygina. Last but not least – thanks to the credibility of scientists. Hal Levison planetary scientist from Colorado skeptical colleagues’ work, citing the haste of Brown and Batygina findings and the need for further testing. As noted by the discoverers of Planet X, astronomers believe their discovery only when the planet will be able to watch through a telescope.
What’s next
To detect Planet X astronomers have reserved time for the Japanese Subaru Observatory in Hawaii. Competition in the search for planets scientists have made Sheppard and Trujillo. Confirmation of the existence of a celestial body can take up to five years. In case of opening the object may be the ninth planet of the solar system. Previously, the search for Planet X in the solar system have led scientists to the discovery of Neptune (in 1864) and Pluto (1930). Almost no doubt that the existence of the ninth planet will be confirmed.

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