mesothelioma ABOUT

Mesothelioma ABOUT


Definition
Mesothelioma is a common disease that causes malignant cancer cells to form the inside lining of the chest and abdomen, or around the heart. It is believed that the main reason to be exposure to asbestos.
Description

It is also known as malignant mesothelioma on behalf of asbestos cancer or simply “average.” Mesothelioma causes cancer cells to develop in the mesothelium in the body, where it can spread to and damage the vital organs and tissues. These can also be malignant cells metastasize to other areas of the body. Mesothelioma is very difficult to diagnose and respond only slightly in most of the methods of treatment, which represents a poor prognosis.
The disease derives its name from the mesothelium, the bag-like membrane that protects most of the internal organs in the body. It is divided into two distinct protective of cells: the visceral (surrounding layer directly on the device) and parietal (bag around the body cavity). By releasing the lubricating fluid, mesothelium allows the devices to move more freely within the body cavity. For example, squeezed and stretched lungs. It referred to as the mesothelium also according to the location in the body: the pleura (chest), peritoneal (abdomen) and pericardial (heart).
More than two-thirds of all cases of mesothelioma begin in the pleura region tumor. Thyroid cancer spreads through the chest cavity, sometimes developing in the lungs as well. The cause of this disease is the most common pleural effusion, an excessive accumulation of fluid in the chest cavity. This excess liquid increases the pressure on the lungs and restricts breathing. In addition, malignant cells can cause pleural lining to thicken and restrict breathing space even further.
Peritoneal mesothelioma is the second most common form of the disease, which represents less than 30% of all cases. Constitute the malignant cells in the peritoneum, which affects the stomach and intestines, liver and spleen. Like pleural mesothelioma, the disease also causes the accumulation of excess fluid in the abdominal cavity. Normal bodily functions, such as digestion, could be hindered by impeding the movement of the machine.
Very rare forms of mesothelioma occur in the pericardial tumor, as well as the mesothelium of the male genital mutilation (FGM). Mesothelioma cystic peritoneal tumor, a rare form of new from this disease, mostly occurs in women and is more moderate in nature.
Takes malignant mesothelioma to form one of the three cell types: epithelioid (50% to 70% of cases), Alsarcomi (7% to 20% of cases), and biphasic / Mixed (20% to 35% of cases). These cell types, mesothelioma Zaarani tumor carries the most appropriate diagnosis, followed by a biphasic, and finally sarcomatosum (very aggressive).

Mesothelioma remains relatively uncommon in the United States, with approximately 2,500 new cases reported annually. Infection rates are much higher in Western Europe (more than 5000 cases reported annually). These figures spent to climb dramatically over the next 20 years. Older male (average age of 60 at diagnosis) and 3-5 times more likely to develop mesothelioma than women tumor. This is the most I like to do to the predominance of men in those occupations with an increased risk of exposure to asbestos.
Causes & symptoms

Nearly 80% of all patients with mesothelioma have a history of exposure to asbestos. They worked the majority of these patients in the industry, which involves the use of asbestos in some fashion. In addition to occupational exposure, home of the family and the exposure it is not uncommon. An individual is exposed can carry asbestos particles on their clothes, skin, in their hair when they return home, which led to the exposure of paraoccupational. Short exposure to asbestos has occurred, no more than 1-2 months, can lead to long-term consequences. Although the dangers of asbestos have been known for decades, and the long latency period of mesothelioma (30 to 40 years) means that the vast majority of patients have already been exposed as far back as the 1950s. It is estimated that up to eight million Americans have already been exposed. Many industries, in particular, show a higher exposure to asbestos ratio:
1. Insulators (Asbestos workers)
2. Boilermakers
3. Ship-fitters
4. Steel workers
5. Maintenance workers
6. Plumbers
7. Brake mechanics
Symptoms

Mesothelioma is a very aggressive once really settles. However, the initial symptoms are usually non-specific in nature and / or mimic other conditions, such as continuous gastronomic disorders or pneumonia. Some patients show no symptoms at all. As such, evaluation and proper diagnosis is usually delayed and must be confirmed by a doctor.
Patients suffering from the most common pleural mesothelioma is showing signs of shortness of breath, pleural effusion, and / or chest pain. Most symptoms of pleural effusion on the right lung (60% of the time). Patients may also present persistent cough, weight loss, weakness, fever, difficulty swallowing.

Patients suffering from peritoneal mesothelioma tumor means most common signs of pain and / or swelling occurs in the growth of fluid retention or abdominal tumor. Weight loss, nausea, intestinal obstruction, anemia, fever, swelling of the legs and / or feet symptoms are known.
Diagnosis

Only a doctor can diagnose mesothelioma properly. , There should be a review of patient’s medical history, including any past exposure to asbestos any patient shortness of breath display, chest pain, accumulation of fluid, or pain and / or swelling in the abdomen. This follows the review with a full physical examination, which must involve the use of imaging techniques. X-ray, computed tomography scan (CT), magnetic resonance (MRI) scans the chest and / or abdomen, as well as lung function, the doctor can provide with critical diagnostic information. Although positron emission tomography scanning are expensive and not covered by most insurance, this diagnostic tool has proved very useful in identifying tumors sites and determine the stages of the disease.
If you referred to, your doctor may want to examine the patient’s chest internally and / or abdominal cavity. This diagnostic procedures, known as thoracoscopy (chest) and endoscopy peritoneum (abdomen), usually performed in hospitals. Both imaging procedures include fiber-optic instrument is inserted into the patient through an incision. These laparoscopic instruments provide the doctor with a closer look at the body cavity, and any type of tissue or abnormal accumulation of fluid found in it. Excess fluid can suction through a needle or tube, in a process known as amniocentesis chest (the chest) or amniocentesis (abdomen). In addition, the doctor may perform a biopsy of any kind of abnormal tissue are discovering during this period. Examine patients of abnormal tissue, as well as liquids, remains the only effective way to confirm the diagnosis of mesothelioma. The biopsy also help the doctor in regulating progression of the disease properly.
Once confirmation has been created malignant mesothelioma, the doctor will conduct further tests to determine the extent of spread of underlying disease. This diagnostic process is known as “staging.” Pleural malignant tumor can be divided into four stages:
Localized mesothelioma malignant mesothelioma (stage 1) -Cancer present in the membrane right or left side. It may involve the lung, pericardium, or diaphragm on that side.
Advanced medium malignant mesothelioma (stage 2) -Cancer spread beyond the right or left pleura to the lymph nodes on that side. It may involve the lung, pericardium, or diaphragm on that side.
Advanced malignant tumor medium epithelium (Phase 3) -Cancer spread to the chest wall, diaphragm and ribs, heart, esophagus, or through the lining of the abdomen. May or may not be nearby lymph nodes involved.
Advanced tumor malignant mesothelioma (stage 4) -Cancer evidence of metastasis or spread through the bloodstream to the members and / or distant tissues appears.

Recurrent malignant mesothelioma may also occur, where the cancer back in its original location or anywhere else in the body even after treatment.
Treatment

There are three traditional methods of treatment mesothelioma: surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. And the location and stage of the disease, as well as the age and general health of the patient, and determine the treatment that should be used. In addition, these methods can be combined if indicated. In fact, it seems that multimodality approach to provide more positive results for the treatment of mesothelioma.
Surgery, the most common treatment, and involves removing the tumor. In the early stages of mesothelioma, this only involves removing part of the mesothelium and surrounding tissue, but may also require removal of part of the diaphragm. For more advanced stages of the disease, and remove the entire lung may be the only option, which is known as the lung.
Radiation therapy, also known as radiation therapy, and destroys cancer cells and shrink through different types of radiation. Each of the external radiation treatments (such as machine) and internal (such as radioactive isotopes) can be used effectively for the treatment of malignant mesothelioma.
Finally, chemotherapy, and the method of comprehensive treatment, used anti-cancer drugs to destroy cancer cells throughout the body. Most of delivery of the drugs used to treat mesothelioma intravenously. The effectiveness of chemotherapy within the Hollows, the injection of drugs directly in the chest or abdominal cavity, and is being studied.
Pain and other symptoms caused by an accumulation of fluid around the chest and / or abdomen can be treated by draining excess fluid through a needle or tube. It is known that these procedures as amniocentesis chest (chest) and amniocentesis (abdomen). Drugs and radiation therapy, surgery can also alleviate or prevent further accumulation of fluid.

Doctors are studying other methods of treatment, such as immunotherapy, gene therapy, and treatment during the photosynthesis process.
Alternative treatment

This is due to poor diagnosis associated with mesothelioma, regardless of the appropriate treatment, in many cases, palliative care is preferred, otherwise, the option is available to patients. This is particularly true for advanced stages of the disease this. By treating the symptoms rather than the disease itself, the goal of this approach is to get the “quality” of life rather than “quantity” of life. The aim of palliative care to relieve the discomfort of the patient’s caused by shortness of breath and pain. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and / or surgical pleurodesis, in conjunction with the effective management of pain and respiratory function should be an appropriate basis for Palliative Care of mesothelioma. Techniques to reduce stress, such as acupuncture, aromatherapy, massage, thinking, and can provide a useful addition to the patient’s sense of well-being.
Prognosis

Phase, location, what is involved cell type, as well as the age of the patient and the tissue a big factor on life expectancy. Unfortunately, even with intensive treatment and diagnosis of patients with intermediate and poor mesothelioma. Pleural mesothelioma offers a median survival period of approximately 16-17 months after the initial symptoms. Diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma is poorer and has a time for survival and median life of only ten months after the initial symptoms. Unfortunately, the more advanced stages of mesothelioma can provide no more than four or five times to survive for a month.

While survival for patients who suffer from domestic mesothelioma can extend for several months with aggressive therapy, with approximately 20% of patients alive last sign of life for five years. We have extended treatment programs recently developed at leading cancer centers this time to survive beyond that. Dr. Sugarbaker, from the women’s center at Brigham and Boston, has achieved an average rate of survival of 40% in five years with the treatment of pleural mesothelioma system, as reported in the Journal of the chest, heart and vascular disease surgery. Other programs are also showing positive results. However, despite these successes, there is no cure for mesothelioma currently exists.
Key terms

Asbestos

Metal naturally, is used all over the world for durability and heat resistance have qualities. Levy very nature, asbestos particles can easily enter the respiratory tract and damage to sensitive tissues. This damage can lead to asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer.
Dyspnea

There is a difficulty in breathing or shortness of breath, usually associated with some form of heart or lung disease. Also known as air hunger.
Mesothelium

Membrane / sac which protects the main internal organs in the body and allow them freedom of movement (for example, lung spasms). The mesothelium is composed of several parts, including the abdominal cavity (peritoneal), and chest cavity (pleura), and pericardial (heart).
Pleural effusion

An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleura, the membrane that lines the inside of Levy the chest cavity and protects the lungs. This buildup can cause shortness of breath, coughing and chest pain.
Prevention

Avoid or reduce exposure to asbestos is the best way to prevent mesothelioma. Unfortunately, due to the large delay between exposure and onset (30-40 years), it is probably too late to prevent the development of mesothelioma for most patients. Not smoking may slow progression of the disease and / or prevent further other complications associated with exposure to asbestos

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