Mesothelioma Facts

Mesothelioma Facts
Definition
Mesothelioma is a common disease that causes malignant cancer cells to form the inner lining of the chest and abdomen, or around the heart. It is believed that the main reason of exposure to asbestos.
Description
Also it is known as malignant mesothelioma on behalf of asbestos cancer or just “average”. Mesothelioma causes cancer to develop in the mesothelium in the body, where it can spread and damage to vital organs and tissue cells. These malignant cells can also metastasize to other areas of the body. Mesothelioma is very difficult to diagnose and respond only slightly in most treatment methods, which implies a poor prognosis.
The disease derives its name from the mesothelium, the bag-shaped membrane that protects most internal organs of the body. It is divided into two separate cells protection: (the layer surrounding directly on the device) visceral and parietal (bag around the body cavity). By releasing the lubricating fluid, mesothelium allows devices to move more freely within the body cavity. For example, squeezed and stretched lungs. It is known as the mesothelium also according to the location in the body: the pleura (chest), peritoneal (abdomen) and the pericardium (heart).
More than two thirds of all cases of mesothelioma begin in the pleura region of the tumor. Thyroid cancer spreads through the chest cavity, sometimes also form in the lungs. The cause of this disease is the most common pleural effusion, an excessive accumulation of fluid in the chest cavity. This excess fluid increases the pressure in the lungs and restricts breathing. In addition, malignant cells can cause pleural lining to thicken and restrict further breathing space.
Peritoneal mesothelioma is the second most common form of the disease, representing less than 30% of all cases. Constitute the malignant cells in the peritoneum, which affects the stomach and intestines, liver and spleen. As the pleural mesothelioma, the disease also causes the accumulation of excess fluid in the abdominal cavity. normal bodily functions such as digestion, could be hampered by hindering the movement of the machine.
very rare forms of mesothelioma occur in the pericardial tumor and the male genital mutilation mesothelium (FGM). cystic tumor peritoneal mesothelioma, a rare form of this disease once again, occurs primarily in women and is more moderate in nature.
Take malignant mesothelioma to form one of the three cell types: epithelioid (50% to 70% of cases), Alsarcomi (7% to 20% of cases), and biphasic / mixed (20% to 35% of cases). These types of cells, mesothelioma tumor Zaarani takes appropriate diagnosis, followed by a biphasic, and finally sarcomatosum (aggressive).
Mesothelioma is still relatively rare in the United States, with approximately 2,500 new cases reported each year. Infection rates are much higher in Western Europe (more than 5000 cases reported annually). These figures increased dramatically over the next 20 years. older men (mean age 60 years at diagnosis) and 3-5 times more likely to develop mesothelioma than women in the tumor. This is how I like to do with the predominance of men in occupations with an increased risk of exposure to asbestos.
Causes and Symptoms
Almost 80% of all patients with mesothelioma have a history of asbestos exposure. most of these patients were worked in the industry, which involves the use of asbestos in some way. Besides occupational exposure, the family home and the exposure it is not uncommon. An individual is exposed can carry asbestos particles in their clothes, skin, hair when they return home, which resulted in the para-occupational exposure. Short-term exposure to asbestos has occurred, it can not be more than 1-2 months, carry long-term consequences. Despite the dangers of asbestos have been known for decades, and the long latency period of mesothelioma (30 to 40 years) means that it is estimated that the vast majority of patients who have already been realized in the 1950s that up eight million Americans have been exposed. Many industries in particular show a greater exposure to asbestos relationship:
1. The insulator (Asbestos workers)
2. Boilermakers
3. Send-assemblers
4. steelworkers
5. Maintenance workers
6. Improvements
7. The mechanical brake
The symptoms
Mesothelioma is a very aggressive once really settles. However, the initial symptoms are usually non-specific in nature and / or mimic other conditions, such as continuous gastronomic disorders or pneumonia. Some patients show no symptoms at all. As such, evaluation and proper diagnosis is usually delayed and must be confirmed by a doctor.
Patients suffering from the most common pleural mesothelioma is showing signs of shortness of breath, pleural effusion, and / or chest pain. Most symptoms of pleural effusion in the right lung (60% of the time). Patients may also present persistent cough, weight loss, weakness, fever, difficulty swallowing.
Patients suffering from peritoneal mesothelioma tumor means that the most common signs of pain and / or swelling in the growth of fluid retention or abdominal tumor. Weight loss, nausea, intestinal obstruction, anemia, fever, swelling of the legs and / or feet symptoms are known.
Diagnosis
Only a doctor can correctly diagnose mesothelioma. , Should be a review of the patient’s medical history, including any previous exposure to asbestos no difficulty in evaluating patients breathing, chest pain, fluid accumulation, or pain and / or swelling in the abdomen. This follows the review of a complete physical examination, which must involve the use of imaging techniques. X-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest and / or lung function and abdomen, the doctor can provide critical diagnostic information. Although positron emission tomography are expensive and not covered by most insurance, this diagnostic tool has proved very useful in identifying sites of tumors and determine the stages of the disease.
If you mentioned, your doctor may want to examine the chest cavity inpatient and / or abdominal. This diagnostic procedure known as thoracoscopic (chest) and endoscopy peritoneum (abdomen), is usually performed in hospitals. Both imaging procedures include fiberoptic instrument is inserted into the patient through an incision. These laparoscopic instruments provide the physician with a closer look of the body cavity, and any type of tissue or abnormal accumulation of fluid in it. Excess liquid can suction through a needle or tube, in a process known as amniocentesis chest (chest) or amniocentesis (abdomen). In addition, the doctor may perform a biopsy of any abnormal tissue are discovering during this period. Examine patients of abnormal tissue and fluids, it remains the only effective means to confirm the diagnosis of mesothelioma. The biopsy also help the doctor in regulating progression of the disease properly.
Once confirmation has been created malignant mesothelioma, the doctor will do more tests to determine the extent of spread of the underlying disease. This diagnostic process is known as “staging”. pleural malignant tumor can be divided into four stages:
mesothelioma localized malignant mesothelioma (stage 1) Cancer is present in the membrane of the right or left. It may involve the lung, pericardium or diaphragm on that side.
Advanced malignant mesothelioma medium (step 2) The cancer spreads beyond the right or left to lymph nodes in the pleura side. It may involve the lung, pericardium or diaphragm on that side.
advanced epithelial malignant tumor means (Phase 3) The spread of cancer to the chest wall, diaphragm and ribs, heart, esophagus or through the lining of the abdomen. It may or may not be involved nearby lymph nodes.
Advanced tumor malignant mesothelioma (stage 4) Cancer is evidence of metastasis or spread through the bloodstream to members and / or distant tissues appears.
recurrent malignant mesothelioma may also occur in cancer back in its original location or anywhere else in the body even after treatment.
Treatment
There are three traditional methods of treatment of mesothelioma: surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. And the location and stage of disease, and the age and general health of the patient and determine the treatment to be used. Furthermore, these methods can be combined if so indicated. In fact, it seems that the multimodal approach to provide more positive results for treatment of mesothelioma.
Surgery, the most common treatment, and involves removal of the tumor. In the early stages of mesothelioma, this only involves removing part of the mesothelium and surrounding tissue, but may also require removal of part of the diaphragm. For more advanced stages of the disease, and remove the entire lung may be the only option, known as the lungs.
Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, and destroys cancer and reduce through different cell types of radiation. Each of the external radiation treatments (such as the machine) and internal (such as radioisotopes) can be used effectively for treating malignant mesothelioma.
Finally, chemotherapy, and comprehensive treatment method, using drugs to kill cancer cells throughout the body. Most drugs used to treat delivered intravenously mesothelioma. the effectiveness of chemotherapy in the gaps, injection of drugs directly into the chest or in the abdominal cavity is studied.
Pain and other symptoms caused by a buildup of fluid around the chest and / or abdomen can be treated by draining excess fluid through a needle or tube. It is known that these procedures as amniocentesis chest (chest) and amniocentesis (abdomen). Drugs and radiotherapy, surgery can also relieve or prevent further fluid buildup.
Doctors are studying other methods of treatment such as immunotherapy, gene therapy, and treatment during the process of photosynthesis.
Alternative treatment
This is due to a poor diagnosis associated with mesothelioma, regardless of the appropriate treatment, in many cases, palliative care, otherwise, the preferred option is available for patients. This is particularly true for advanced stages of the disease this. By treating the symptoms rather than the disease itself, the goal of this approach is to get the “quality” of life rather than the “quantity” of life. The goal of palliative care to relieve patient discomfort caused by shortness of breath and pain. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy and / or surgical pleurodesis, in conjunction with effective pain management and respiratory function should be an appropriate basis for palliative care for mesothelioma. Techniques to reduce stress, such as acupuncture, aromatherapy, massage, thinking, and can provide a useful sense of well-being of the addition of the patient.
Forecast
Phase, location, what is the type of cells involved, as well as the patient’s age and tissue an important factor in life expectancy. Unfortunately, even with intensive treatment and diagnosis of patients with intermediate and poor mesothelioma. Pleural mesothelioma offers a median survival period of about 16 to 17 months after the initial symptoms. Diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma is poorer and has a survival time and half-life of only ten months after the initial symptoms. Unfortunately, the more advanced stages of mesothelioma can provide no more than four or five times to survive for a month.
While survival for patients suffering from internal mesothelioma may extend over several months with aggressive therapy, with approximately 20% of the signs of life in the last five years living patients. treatment programs that have recently expanded have developed in major cancer centers this time to survive beyond that. Dr. Sugarbaker, from the women’s center at Brigham and Boston, has achieved an average rate of 40% five-year survival with the treatment system pleural mesothelioma, as reported in the Journal of chest surgery, heart and vascular disease. Other programs are also showing positive results. However, despite these successes, there is currently no cure for mesothelioma.
key terms
Asbestos
Metal naturally, it is used worldwide for durability and heat resistance have qualities. Levy asbestos particles very nature, can easily enter the respiratory tract and damage to sensitive tissues. This damage can lead to asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer.
dyspnoea
There is a difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, usually associated with some form of heart disease or lung. It is also known as dyspnea.
mesothelium
Membrane / sac that protects the internal organs of the body and allows them freedom of movement (eg, lung spasms). The mesothelium is composed of several parts, including the abdominal cavity (peritoneal), and chest cavity (pleura), and pericardial (heart).
Pleural effusion
An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleura, the membrane that lines the inside of the chest cavity and protects the lungs Levy. This buildup can cause shortness of breath, coughing and chest pain.
Prevention
Avoid or reduce exposure to asbestos is the best way to prevent mesothelioma. Unfortunately, due to the long delay between exposure and onset (30-40 years), it is probably too late to prevent the development of mesothelioma for most patients. No smoking can slow the progression of the disease and / or prevent further other complications associated with exposure to asbestos.

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